Healing properties

share small Healing properties

Used in the making of jewelry

 

Metal

Healing properties

 

(Gold) based on the beliefs of the New Age include the treatment of blood, skin, neurological and heart disorders. They believe Gold to be an energy generator and remover of blockages with the power to strengthen, amplify and conduct energy in the body for the treatment of autism, dyslexia, epilepsy and scoliosis. Medical uses based on science have included the treatment of Arthritis, dental fixtures, and more.

(Silver) is believed to benefit circulation, help lungs and throat, and detoxify the blood, to aid in the treatment of degenerative brain diseases, balancing of hormones and chemicals and improvement of nerve impulse transmission. They also use it for treating hepatitis and detoxifying the body.

(Cooper) is an energizer and conductor of Divine energies onto the physical plane.  A stone of Hermes, it is associated with quick thought, witty communications and leaps of insight. People who are deficient in copper may benefit from wearing copper jewelry, since it can be absorbed through the skin. Jewelry is a good way of taking in the small amount of the mineral needed. The healing properties of copper, in the form of bracelets, necklaces, rings, or earrings, can allow a minimal amount of the mineral into the body without overwhelming it. Some wearers of copper jewelry find it relieves the symptoms of arthritis and circulation problems.

(Brass) Composed of Copper and Zinc, Brass has metaphysical healing properties to boost the immune system and to give courage, ‘bold as brass’. Repeated wearing of Brass jewelry pieces will cause them to take on your own body chemistry revealing your personal energy signature. Even with a very old piece, wearing it will make the tarnish disappear.

(Magnet therapy) (Lodestone) has been used for  centuries to relieve pain, reduce inflammation and enhance healing. This  works because there is iron in the blood, so the magnetism aids blood  flow. Depression,  Grounding, Oxygenation of the bloodstream.

Check my link page for other metal healing properties.

 

 

Gem Stone

 Healing properties

 

 Garnet

Garnet, the birthstone for January,  signifies eternal friendship and trust and is the perfect gift for a friend.  Garnet, derived from the word granatum, means seed, and is called so because of the gemstone’s resemblance to a pomegranate seed.  References to the gemstone dates back to 3100 B.C., when the Egyptians used garnets as inlays jewelry.  Garnet is the name of a group of minerals that comes in a rainbow of colors, from the deep red of the pyrope garnet to the vibrant green of tsavorites.  Today, the most important sources for garnet are Africa, Sri Lanka, and India. – See more at: http://www.americangemsociety.org/january-birthstone#sthash.ce0pqzaI.dpuf

Garnet, the January birthstone,  signifies eternal friendship and trust and is the perfect gift for a friend.  Garnet, derived from the word granatum, means seed, and is called so because of the gemstone’s resemblance to a pomegranate seed.  References to the gemstone dates back to 3100 B.C., when the Egyptians used garnets as inlays jewelry.  Garnet is the name of a group of minerals that comes in a rainbow of colors, from the deep red of the pyrope garnet to the vibrant green of tsavorites.  Today, the most important sources for garnet are Africa, Sri Lanka, and India. Garnet comes in many colors, but now we will speak only about red Garnet. The Garnet is associated with the thyroid and spleen. It helps cleanse and purify both when held over the area. The Garnet is usually held in the hand or placed on top of the head when searching or meditating on past lives. Information that is beneficial and helpful will usually be released for the searcher.
The Garnet is a stone of purity and truth as well as a symbol of love and compassion. The information released in a search may be painful, but it will always be what the searcher needs. The Garnet will help everyone’s security level and spiritual awareness.It can help increase the sex drive.

Amethyst

February birthstone Amethyst the gemstone believed by ancient Greeks and Romans to ward off the intoxicating powers of Bacchus, also is said to keep the wearer clear-headed and quick-witted. Throughout history, the gemstone has been associated with many myths, legends, religions, and numerous cultures.Amethyst is a gemstone often worn by healers, as it has the power to focus energy. A healer will usually wear several pieces of jewelry with amethysts set in silver, especially an amethyst necklace. The person to be healed will have an Amethyst to hold while the healing is being done. The healer will place another piece of Amethyst on the area of the body in need of healing, the heart or lungs usually.Amethyst is used for problems in the blood and in breathing problems. Amethyst crystal clusters are used to keep the air and life force in the home clean and positive. Amethyst clusters, points or several tumbled Amethysts placed in a window that receives sun most of the day are very beneficial to use in healing and to heal negativity in the home. Place Amethyst clusters, points or several tumbled Amethysts in moonlight and everyone in the home will be feeling calmer. Using an Amethyst as a meditation focus will increase the positive spiritual feelings. Amethyst helps overcome fears and cravings. It also helps relieve headaches.

 

Amazonite (The Stone of Hope and Truth)

Attractive green-blue opaque stone. It is said to enhance intuition, psychic powers, creativity, intellect, and psychic ability. Brings clarity, balance and insight. Soothing to the nervous system. Improves self worth, promotes confidence.  Calms emotions. Amazonite is also said to assist with peacefully making the transition out of this life. Aligns mental and physical body.  Enhances creativity. Also helps with metabolism and growth. Useful when trying to express oneself more clearly. Regulates and improves thinking abilities. Heals emotional disturbances and the after effects of emotional trauma. It is reputed to have spiritual energy healing powers of preventive energy that’s good for one’s health in general, colic, decreasing heart problems, benefiting the muscles, calcium deficiency, pregnancy, eczema, muscle cramps, helping the nervous system, lessening tooth decay and osteoporosis.

 

 

Ametrine

Ametrine is very helpful in getting rid of depression. This leads to inner peace and tranquility.
Many believe that it contains the powers of amethyst and citrine in one stone, making it a very powerful money stone as well as an excellent via to higher psychic awareness and spiritual enlightenment.

 

Aquamarine

March’s birthstone, the name aquamarine is derived from the Latin word aqua, meaning water, and marina, meaning the sea.  This gemstone was believed to protect sailors, as well as to guarantee a safe voyage.  The serene color of aquamarine is said to cool the temper, allowing the wearer to remain calm and levelheaded.  Its pale, cool color beautifully complements spring and summer wardrobes.  Aquamarine is most often light in tone and ranges from greenish blue to blue-green; the color usually is more intense in larger stones.  This gemstone is mined mainly in Brazil, but also is found in Nigeria, Madagascar, Zambia, Pakistan, and Mozambique. Aquamarine is often associated with the thymus gland. It is very soothing worn as a necklace. Healers use it to help reduce fluid retention. It has been used to calm the nerves. The Romans used the aquamarine for diseases of the stomach, and believed it could cure liver and throat troubles.

 

Agate

Agate is used for stomach upsets. Place the agate on the solar plexus. The agate can’t change emotions, but helps to change our level of acceptance of the emotion. Such as when you are very sad the agate will let you know that this will pass and help you get on to another and better day. This is why the Agate is considered so powerful as it gives us the strength to carry on. Carry an agate when you have to make an important decision. Wear or carry blue lace agate for peace and happiness. Place it in your hand when you feel the need to de-stress. If you find yourself in stressful situations at work or home, keep some blue lace agate on your desk and simply gaze at it for relief. In the home, surround blue lace agate stones with light blue candles to calm the atmosphere and reduce family quarrels. Eye Agate or Botswana Agate enhances sexual energy by giving physical stamina.

 

Aventurine

Aventurine is used to aid nearsightedness. Aventurine has a stabilizing effect on the emotions. It is excellent for teenagers.

 

Black Onyx

In Classical times  black onyx was engraved with the image of Mars or Hercules as an icon of courage. A stone with strong grounding properties, many believe that it will assist the wearer to be more assertive, especially with those in  authority. It is also used for relieving nightmares and for protection  after dark, both in the home and when travelling.

 

Carnelian

Carnelian is an energy booster. It helps the insecure person to find strength within them so they can come into their own. It is said to increase the appetite.

 

Citrine

Citrine is sometimes used by healers to help with digestion as it is considered beneficial to the endocrine and digestive system – cleansing, purifying and eliminating poisons that have built up. Citrine is an excellent stone to calm and soothe distressed conditions. Some use it to help relieve depression, digestive problems (including constipation and diabetes). It will give joy and love to the owner.

 

Chrysoprase

Chrysoprase is used to speed the healing of any wound. It should not be placed on the body, but held over the affected area. Carry a Chrysoprase in a pocket to help heal. Also keep a Chrysoprase close to your bed at night to speed healing.
Chrysoprase is used as a shield or protector from negative energy. A small bowl of Chrysoprase kept by the front entrance of the home is a very wise procedure. If used in jewelry, Chrysoprase should only be set in silver and has more power carved in the shape of a heart.

 

Crystal

Crystal is a common stone, but a powerful one. It is mainly used in healing as amplificaion for the energies of the other working stones.

 

Diamond

As the April birthstone, diamonds are the ideal gift for a loved one.  And now you have more choices than ever. Get creative and give the ultimate gift of beauty: a fancy-color diamond. Fancy-color diamonds are natural, rare and truly exotic gem of the earth.  Diamonds in hues of yellow, red, pink, blue, and green range in intensity from faint to vivid and generally the more saturated the color, the higher the value. In fact, diamonds sparkling with intense color are rare and may be priced higher than a colorless diamond of equal size.  Because fancy-color diamonds are very desirable, color is sometimes introduced in a laboratory. These are correctly called color-treated diamonds. When purchasing a fancy-color diamond, the shopper should ask if any enhancements or treatments were used to improve its color and/or clarity

As the April birthstone, diamonds are the ideal gift for a loved one.  And now you have more choices than ever. Get creative and give the ultimate gift of beauty: a fancy-color diamond. Fancy-color diamonds are natural, rare and truly exotic gem of the earth.  Diamonds in hues of yellow, red, pink, blue, and green range in intensity from faint to vivid and generally the more saturated the color, the higher the value. In fact, diamonds sparkling with intense color are rare and may be priced higher than a colorless diamond of equal size.  Because fancy-color diamonds are very desirable, color is sometimes introduced in a laboratory. These are correctly called color-treated diamonds. When purchasing a fancy-color diamond, the shopper should ask if any enhancements or treatments were used to improve its color and/or clarity. – See more at: http://www.americangemsociety.org/april-birthstone#sthash.31qBtHn9.dpuf

 Herkimer Diamond

The Herkimer Diamond is a double terminated crystal (there is a point at each end of the crystal). It is water clear and different from Quartz. It is a very powerful balancer of the body and emotions and should be used carefully. Double terminated equals super power.

 

Emerald

As the May birthstone, the emerald, a symbol of rebirth, is believed to grant the owner foresight, good fortune, and youth. Emerald, derived from the word smaragdus, meaning green in Greek, was mined in Egypt as early as 330 B.C. Today, most of the world’s emeralds are mined in Colombia, Brazil, Afghanistan, and Zambia. The availability of high-quality emerald is limited; consequently, treatments to improve clarity are performed regularly. Emerald is used by healers to help heal the heart. The power of the Emerald is highest at the full moon. Some cultures thought the emerald would heal any disease of the eye. The emerald would be placed in a container of water overnight and the water would be poured on the eyes the next day. Emerald is a stone of great harmony, wisdom and love. Giving your lover an Emerald will bring the lover closer if the giver’s motives are pure love. The Emerald can be a bridge between 2 people. The Emerald vibrates with love.
Healers use this stone to aid respiratory difficulties, regeneration of cells, flow of energy throughout the body. It is considered an excellent balancing stone for a sad or weak heart.

 

Moonstone

Moonstone is used by healers to stimulate the functioning of the pineal gland and balance internal hormone cycles with nature’s rhythms. Moonstone is a stone of inner growth and strength. Though often considered to be a woman’s stone, it can be beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

 

 Bloodstone

The bloodstone is used for circulation of all energy in the body and helps to remove energy blocks. Bloodstone is used in the alignment of all the centers of the body. A healer must do this alignment while the patient lies on his stomach. It also aids in the circulation of blood. It is good to have several pieces of Bloodstone in the home to increase the flow of life energy.

 

Amber

Amber: Early physicians prescribed amber for headaches, heart problems, arthritis and a variety of other ailments. In ancient times, amber was carried by travellers for protection. To early Christians, amber signified the presence of the Lord.

 

 Magnetite

Magnetite Healers use this stone for recovery. It is said to be beneficial for asthma, blood and circulatory system, skin and hair. Some use it for muscle strains and cramps; to stop nosebleeds.

 

Copper

Copper has long been used as a healing metal, especially for arthritis and rheumatism. Copper has been used with blood and metabolism disorders. Copper acts as a conductor when worn on the body. Copper will help the healing effect of any stone when both touch the body.

 

Snowflake obsidian

Snowflake obsidian is used by healers to relieve muscle cramps. It is considered a good detoxification stone.

 

Jet/Lignite

Jet/Lignite is used by healers to aid the cleansing of the liver and kidneys.
Healing with jet is often done in combination with Amber or sugilite

 

Imperial Topaz

Imperial Topaz

  • Stimulate the appetite
  • Aid in nervous exhaustion
  • Activate life force and metabolism

 

Red Coral

Red Coral symbolizes life and blood force energy. Dark red coral is used for heating and stimulating the bloodstream. Pink shades restore harmony to the heart. It is used as an aid to depression, lethargy or deficient nutrition.

 

Rhodochrosite

Rhodochrosite
Stimulates circulation and blood pressure, kidneys and reproductive organs.

 

Moonstone

Moonstone is used by healers to stimulate the functioning of the pineal gland and balance internal hormone cycles with nature’s rhythms. Moonstone is a stone of inner growth and strength. Though often considered to be a woman’s stone, it can be beneficial to men in opening the emotional self.

 

Fluorite

Fluorite may be used with other stones. It helps to open the way for the power of other stones to be effective. It can be used as a meditation stone to help energize the body and raise the power of concentration.
Healers use it to help with ulcers as well as the respiratory tract by stimulating cell regeneration in these areas. It fortifies bones, improves arthritic or other joint ailments. It can be laid directly on the body.

 

 

Hematite

Hematite

Physical Healing Properties: leg cramps, blood disorders, nervous disorders, and insomnia. Spinal alignment and the proper healing of bones, breaks, and fractures. 
Hematite helps one sort out things in ones own mind, and can be useful for a mental “tune up”. It helps memory enhancement, original thinking and technical knowledge. 
Good stone for IT personnel. A calming stone, but also offers support for your hopes, dreams, wishes and desires, by encouraging you to “reach for the sun”. 
Hematite reminds you that the only limitations that exist are those that you place upon yourself. It helps to balance out the emotions and energies between the body, mind and spirit. Not only does it dissolve negativity, but actually transforms it into the energy of Universal Love.

Hematite stimulates iron absorption in the small intestine, which in turn improves oxygen supply to the body.

 

Jade

The soothing green color of jade makes it a wonderful healing stone. It helps the body in self-healing while working through underlying, non-physical reasons for a precipitation for disease. It is particularly helpful for kidney, heart and stomach complaints.

 

Jasper

Jasper comes in many colors. All colors of Jasper will help balance the vibrations of the body. Jasper is slow to show a change to the person, but is such a basic “good” stone that one should always have it on hand. Leopard skin jasper is said to assist in self-healing.
Jasper comes in many colors. All colors of Jasper will help balance the vibrations of the body. Jasper is slow to show a change to the person, but is such a basic “good” stone that one should always have it on hand.
Red Jasper helps with the sense of smell. It also promotes physical energy.

 

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli is used with other stones when parts of the body need to be purified and cleansed and should be only used by a healer. Lapis Lazuli has high intensity and can open many of the chakra center. This must be done only with love in the heart and comprehension in the mind and wisdom in soul.

 

Moss Agate

Moss Agate strengthens in times of stress.
It is helpful in relieving sensitivities to weather and pollution. Midwives use it to assist in successful birthing. It is used to speed up recovery, conteract long term illnesses, cleanse the circulatory and elimination systems.

 

Blue calcite

Blue calcite can be used as a healing stone when worn or placed between blue or purple candles. It is often used in purification rituals. Some of its healing uses are:

  • stimulates metabolism
  • strengthens the immune system
  • stabilizes the rhythm of the heart
  • lowers blood pressure
  • dissolves pain

 

 Fire opal

Fire opal helps relieve energy deficiencies; stimulates sexual organs and the adrenal glands.

 

 Kunzite

Gaze at or hold a kunzite to release daily stress, smooth out knotted muscles, calm nerves, anger or fear.

 

Obsidian

Obsidian helps to protect the very sensitive against depression. It is the stone of the soft hearted and gentle people of the world. Use obsidian to help block negativity of any kind. As a black gemstone, it symbolizes self control and resilience. Black stones have protective energies in the sense that black is the absence of light, and therefore, can be used to create invisibility.

 

Pearl

Historically, pearls June birthstone have been used as an adornment for centuries.  They were one of the favorite gem materials of the Roman Empire; later in Tudor England, the 1500s were known as the pearl age.  Pearls are unique as they are the only gems from living sea creatures and require no faceting or polishing to reveal their natural beauty. In the early 1900s, the first successful commercial culturing of round saltwater pearls began. Since the 1920s, cultured pearls have almost completely replaced natural pearls in the market

Ruby

Rubies July birthstone, arouse the senses, stir the imagination, and are said to guarantee health, wisdom, wealth and success in love. Ruby is a variety of the gems species corundum. It is harder than any natural gemstone except diamond, which means a ruby is durable enough for everyday wear. Fine-quality ruby is extremely rare, and the color of the gem is most important to its value. The most prized color is a medium or medium dark vivid red or slightly purplish red. If the gem is too light or has too much purple or orange, it will be called a fancy-color sapphire.

Peridot

Peridot August’s birthstone is said to host magical powers and healing properties to protect against nightmares and to bring the wearer power, influence, and a wonderful year.  As peridot is a gemstone that forms deep inside the Earth and brought to the surface by volcanoes, in Hawaii, peridot symbolizes the tears of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes.  Today, most of the peridot supply comes from Arizona; other sources are China, Myanmar, and Pakistan.  This gemstone comes in several color variations ranging from yellowish green to brown, but most consumers are attracted to the bright lime greens and olive greens.  Peridot, in smaller sizes, often is used in beaded necklaces and bracelets.Peridot is a stone of lightness and beauty. Only spiritual or clear-minded persons should use peridot. The person with too many earthly problems will not be able to understand the beauty of the Peridot. The very spiritual can wear peridot in a necklace with the stone at the base of the throat to feel its soothing effect. Used in a necklace, peridot is a protector against negative emotions.
Peridot has been known to have healing effect on the gall bladder and liver.

 

Petrified Wood

Petrified Wood helps restore physical energy and is good in relieving hip and back problems.

 

Rhodonite

Rhodonite raises self worth and helps ward off negativity. It has been known as a “rescue stone”.

 

Quartz

Rose Quartz has a gentle vibration of love for the owner. It gives inner peace and helps in all matters pertaining to love in all its forms. Rose Quartz opens the heart to love. It also helps as a rejuvenator to the skin. It is a lovely stone for a young person.
It is said washing the face in water charged by rose quartz will help fade wrinkles and keep the skin young.
Smokey Quartz is connected with the sounds of the universe. It makes you more aware of sounds including telepathic sounds. Smokey Quartz helps relieve depression.
Tourmalated Quartz is clear or milky Quartz with black Tourmaline needles. The clear quartz is an amplifier while the black tourmaline is a cleansing, grounding influence.

  • Assists with clear thinking
  • Protectss from unhealthy energies
  • Clears energy patterns

Sapphire

Sapphire the September birthstone, has been popular since the Middle Ages and, according to folklore, will protect your loved ones from envy and harm.  Medieval clergy wore sapphires to symbolize heaven, while commoners thought the gem attracted heavenly blessings.  Blue sapphires range from very light to very dark greenish or violetish blue, as well as various shades of pure blue.  The most prized colors are a medium to medium dark blue or slightly violetish blue.  Sapphire is a variety of the gem species corundum and occurs in all colors of the  rainbow.  Pink, purple, green, orange, or yellow corundum are known by their color (pink sapphire, green sapphire).  Ruby is the red variety of corundum.

Tourmaline

Tourmaline Octobers birthstone has become a favorite gemstone among jewelry designer, and gem collectors the world over. Since it is available in a wide variety of colors, it is ideally suited to almost anyone’s taste. Tourmaline also is known for displaying several colors in the same gemstone.  These bi-color or tri-color gems are formed in many combinations; gemstones with clear color distinctions are highly prized.  One multi-color variety is known as watermelon tourmaline, and features green, pink, and white colors bands; to resemble its namesake, the gemstone is cut into thin slices having a pink center, white ring, and green edge.  Tourmaline is found in many localities including Brazil, Afghanistan, East Africa, and the USA.Tourmaline uses differs as its colors differ. All colors are very powerful and it must be used carefully. Each person seems to react differently to Tourmaline. It has been used with intestinal problems, but only a healer should use it. Black Tourmaline pushes all negativity away. All of the tourmalines are used for their strong healing energies. The watermelon variety is used by crystal healers to encourage a calm, centered state of mind.

Topaz

Topaz is a November gemstone available in a rich rainbow of colors. Prized for several thousand years in antiquity, all yellow gems in antiquity were called topaz. Often confused with citrine quartz (yellow) and smoky quartz (brown), quartz and topaz are separate and unrelated mineral species. The most prized color of topaz is called Imperial topaz after the Russian Czars of the 1800s and features a magnificent orange body color with pinkish undertones. Topaz also comes in yellow, pink, purple, orange, and the many popular blue tones.

Sodalite (A Stone for Weight Loss)

Sodalite  is the stone of athletics, as it stimulates endurance. It is said sodalite  will harmonize the inner being or the conscious and subconscious mind. Sodalite promotes peace and harmony. Sodalite is extra lucky for writers. Sodalite is associated with the thyroid. Wear it when you want to loose a few pounds. Helps in communicating and will give confidence to speak. Sodalite brings order and calmness to the mind. It encourages rational thought, objectivity, truth and intuition, along with verbalization of feelings.  Sodalite brings emotional balance and calms panic attacks. It enhances self-esteem, self-acceptance and self-trust. Sodalite balances the metabolism, boosts the immune system and overcomes calcium deficiencies. It combats radiation damage by soaking up electromagnetic smog. Sodalite treats the throat, vocal cords, larynx and helps with hoarseness and digestive disorders. It cools fevers, lowers blood pressure and stimulates the absorption of body fluids. Sodalite can also help to prevent insomnia.

 

 Tiger’s-eye

Tiger’s-eye or Cat’s-Eye is a stone for the mind, not the body. Tiger Eye is used to focus the mind. It will cause the mind to have feeling of oneness and feel more direct in all thoughts. It makes one aware of one’s own needs related to the needs of others.
A personal symbol carved in Tiger eye is excellent for the spiritually advanced to use in meditation.

 

Tanzanite

December birthstone, discovered in the late 1960s in Tanzania, and found exclusively in this tiny area of the world, tanzanite exhibits a rich violet-blue color for which the gemstone is treasured; often it is heat-treated to achieve this color.  Colors range from blue to purple, and tanzanites that are medium dark in tone, vivid in saturation, and slightly violet blue command premium prices.  As tanzanite can be less expensive than sapphire, it often was purchased as an alternative.  However, it has increased in popularity and now is valued more for its own beauty and brilliance than as a sapphire substitute.

 

 

Turquoise

Turquoise

  • Neutralizes over acidity
  • Alleviates rheumatism, gout, stomach problems, viral infections
  • Increases growth, muscular strength
  • Alleviates pain, relaxes cramps
  • Contains anti-inflammatory and detoxifying effects

Application: should be worn on the solar plexus
Use with copper to increase power of Turqouise

 

Serpentine

Serpentine can be placed directly on the skin. It is an aid to kidney and stomach complaints, relaxes cramps and menstrual pain and helps women who are unable to reach orgasm due to tension.

 

 Chrysocolla

Chrysocolla can be placed directly on the affected body part. Laying it on the forehead as a ‘third eye’ offers spiritual benefit.

  • Help with infections (especially the throat area)
  • Used by healers to detoxify the liver, lower blood pressure
  • Has a cooling effect for fever reduction
  • Can assist in speeding up recovery from burns
  • Alleviates cramps

Used with copper to increase power of chrysocolla.

 

Azurite

Azurite

  • Liver stimulant
  • Aids detoxification
  • Stimulates brain and nerve activity
  • Encourages growth by stimulating the activity of the thyroid gland

Used with copper to increase power of Azurite

 

*Disclaimer: This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider with any questions or concerns you may have regarding your condition. The information provided is for educational purposes only and is not intended as diagnosis, treatment, or prescription of any kind. The decision to use, or not to use, any information is the sole responsibility of the reader.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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